Which of the following poisoning that form a strong bond with hemoglobin and creates a functional anemia?  Which of the following poisoning that form a strong bond with hemoglobin and creates a functional anemia?


Q. Which of the following poisoning that form a strong bond with hemoglobin and creates a functional anemia?

(a) Carbon monoxide poisoning
(b) Atropine poisoning
(c) Organophosphorus poisoning
(d) Arsenic poisoning

Anemia:- In this condition hemogloboin level is lower than normal which affect the oxygen carring capacity of the blood. it is the most common hematologic condition.  common anemia is iron deficiency anemia.
Types of anemia: 1. Sickle cell anemia.
                               2. Megaloblastic anemia.
                               3. Iron deficiency anemia.
                              4. Aplastic anemia.
                             5. Hemolytic anemia ( destruction of RBC).
                            6. Hypoproliferrative anemia( defect in RBC production).
Causes of anemia: Men and postmenopausal women (Bleeding from ulcer, gastritis, IBD or GI tumors), Premenopausal women ( Menorrhagia and pregnancy). Vitamin B12, Autosomal recessive condition resulting in sickle-shaped RBC, inheritance of a gene for a stucturally abnormal portion of the hemoglobin chain.Blood loss, increased metabolic demands,syndromes of gastrointestinal malabsorption and dietary inadequacy,chronic exposure to myelotoxic agents, viruses, infection,allergic states.
Clinical manifestations of anemia: Dyspnea, tachycardia, muscle pain, chest pain, cramping, generlized weakness ,fatigue, pallor of the skin, jaundice, angular cheilosis,Smooth and red tongue, brittle, ridged, concave nails and pica, infection retinal hemorrhage, purpura,low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, red blood cell that are microcytic and hypochromic.
Treatment of anemia: Directed at controlling the cause of anemia, transfusion of packed RBC in severe case of anemia, Take iron rich food, Iron replacement therapy in case of iron deficiency anemia, maintain adequate hydration and blood flow through oral and intravenously administered fluids.Electrolyte replacement is also provided as needed, Administer oxygen and blood transfusion as prescribed to increase tissue perfusions.Encourage consumption of a high- calorie, high protein diet with folic acid suppliment.prepare the child for bone marrow transplantation if planned.corticosteroids and cyclosporine may be prescribed, antibiotic, immunosuppressive medication.

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