Which of the following is an example of nursing diagnosis? Which of the following is an example of nursing diagnosis mcq is given below:


Q. Which of the following is an example of nursing diagnosis?

(a) Hypertension 
(b) Pain 
(c) Shock 
(d) Hyperglycemi

Pain:-Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory perception caused by injury or illness.A disorder in which pain is the predominant symptom, is of such severity to warrant clinical attention, and interferes with function. The Psychological factoers are important in  onset, severity, exacerbation, or maintenance of the pain.  This condition is not intentionally produced or feigned. 
Pain classification: Acute pain and chronic pain. 
Pain theories: The specificity theory-there are specific pain receptors and pathways exit to transmit pain singnals to pain centre in the brain.
The pattern theory-The pattern theory asserts the existence of rapid and slow conduction pathway which conducts pain signal to the brain through spinal cord. 
Thegate control theory-this theory emphasize that nonpainful signal closes the gates to painful signal. This prevents pain information from travelling to CNS.Hence nonpainful stimulus can suppress the pain perception. This theory forms the basis for some nonpharmacological pain management techniques.
Pain assessment: Visual analogue scale, 0-10 rating scale, face rating scale, behavioral pain scale, questionnaire,pain flow chart and body diagram.
Pharmacologic management of pain: NSAIDs(nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
Opioid analgesics: Used for severe and acute pain(narcotic agents).

Nursing management: To assess to patient pain level of the patient.To provide the comfort device of the patient. To fullfil the basic needs of patient. 
 

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