Which among of the following electrolyte has to be replaced in a client with vomiting and diarrhea   Which among of the following electrolyte has to be replaced in a client with vomiting and diarrhea  mcq is given below:

Q. Which among of the following electrolyte has to be replaced in a client with vomiting and diarrhea 

(a) sodium 
(b) potassium 
(c) calcium 
(d) magnesium 

Potassium:- It is a mineral and an electrolyte which conducts impulses throught out the body.It helps yousnerve to function and muscles to contract It also helps your heartbeat stay regular and move nutrients into cells and weaste products out of cells. The normal value of possium is 3.5-5mEq/L. Potassium the one of the most importatnt minerals in the body. if the potassium level is more then 5mEq/L called hyperkalemiaand if less then 3.5mEq/L caalled hypokalemia. 

Functions of potssium: To maintain intrecellular osmotic pressure, to regulate the acid-base balance, Transmission of nerve impulse, to regulate the heart beat, Cardiac muscle activity.It helps for glycogendeposite in liver and skeletal muscles, Maintain smooth muscles and skeletal muscle contraction.

Hypokalemia: It is a serum potassium level lower than 3.5-5mEq/L.It is potentially life-threatening becouse every body system is affected.

Causes of Hypokalemia: 1.Excessive use of medications such as diuretics and corticosteroids.
                                            2. Excessive diaphoresis
                                           3. Prolonged nasogastric suction
                                          4. Increased secretion of aldosterone, such as cushing’s syndrome
                                         5. Diarrhea, vomiting
                                         6. Low potassium intake like fasting
                                        7. Wound drainage, particulaely gastrointestinal 

Suigns and symptoms of Hypokalemia: Confusion, Fatigue, cramps, Arrhythmia, St wave depression and abnormal U wave ,paralysis, muscles weakness ,Thready weal and irregular pulse, weak periphral pulses, orthostatic hypotension,diminished breath sounds,deep tendon hyporeflexia.

Treatment of Hypokalemia: Monitor patient cadiovascular,neuromuscular, gastrointestinal,respiratory and renal status.
.Place the client on cardiac monitor
. Monitor the patient electrolyte values
. Administer potassiun suppliments intravenously or orally as prescribed by doctor.
. Instruct the client to take  potassium rich food.
. If the client on potassium-depleting diuretic it may be discontinued and start potassium-retaining diuretic may be prescribed.

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